Uterine Fibroids: Symptoms, Causes, Types and Treatment

What are Uterine Fibroids?

What are Uterine Fibroids?

Uterine Fibroids
Uterine Fibroids

Uterine fibroids, also known as leiomyomas or myomas, are non-cancerous growths that develop in or on the uterus, the reproductive organ where a baby grows during pregnancy. These growths are composed of muscle and fibrous tissue and can vary greatly in size, from tiny seedlings that are undetectable by the human eye to large masses that can distort and enlarge the uterus. They are incredibly common, affecting up to 80% of women by the age of 50. While many women with uterine fibroids experience no symptoms, others may suffer from a range of discomforts, including heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, and reproductive complications.

Types of Uterine Fibroids

Types of Uterine Fibroids
Types of Uterine Fibroids

Uterine fibroids can be classified into several types based on their location within or around the uterus:

  1. Intramural fibroids: These fibroids develop within the muscular wall of the uterus and are the most common type.
  2. Subserosal fibroids: These fibroids grow outward from the outer surface of the uterus, creating a bulge or protrusion.
  3. Submucosal fibroids: These fibroids develop within the uterine cavity, protruding into the uterine lining (endometrium).
  4. Pedunculated fibroids: These are subserosal or submucosal fibroids that develop a stem-like structure (peduncle) that attaches them to the uterine wall.
  5. Cervical fibroids: These relatively rare fibroids develop within the cervix, the lower portion of the uterus.

The type of fibroid can influence the symptoms experienced and the appropriate treatment approach.

Causes of Uterine Fibroids

Causes of Uterine Fibroids
Causes of Uterine Fibroids

The precise cause of uterine fibroids is not fully understood, but several factors have been identified as potential contributors:

  1. Hormonal imbalances: Estrogen and progesterone, the two primary female hormones, are thought to play a significant role in the development and growth of uterine fibroids. Elevated levels of these hormones can stimulate the growth of existing fibroids or trigger the formation of new ones.
  2. Genetic predisposition: Research suggests that uterine fibroids may have a genetic component. Women with a family history of fibroids are more likely to develop them themselves.
  3. Early onset of menstruation: Women who start menstruating at a younger age are at an increased risk of developing uterine fibroids later in life. This is believed to be due to longer exposure to hormonal fluctuations.
  4. Obesity: Being overweight or obese has been linked to an increased risk of uterine fibroids. This may be due to higher levels of circulating estrogen produced by fat cells.
  5. Vitamin D deficiency: Some studies have suggested that a lack of vitamin D may contribute to the development of uterine fibroids, although the exact mechanism is not well understood.

It’s important to note that while these factors may increase the risk of developing uterine fibroids, their presence does not guarantee that a woman will develop these growths.

Symptoms of Uterine Fibroids

Symptoms of Uterine Fibroids
Symptoms of Uterine Fibroids

Many women with uterine fibroids experience no symptoms at all, and the growths may go unnoticed until detected during a routine pelvic exam or imaging test. However, when symptoms do occur, they can vary depending on the size, location, and number of fibroids present. Common symptoms of uterine fibroids include:

  1. Heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding: This is one of the most common symptoms of uterine fibroids. The presence of fibroids can cause excessive bleeding during menstruation, leading to heavy periods that last longer than usual.
  2. Pelvic pain or pressure: Fibroids can exert pressure on the surrounding organs, leading to pelvic pain or a feeling of fullness or heaviness in the abdomen.
  3. Frequent urination or difficulty emptying the bladder: When fibroids press against the bladder, they can cause frequent urination or a feeling of incomplete bladder emptying.
  4. Constipation or bloating: Fibroids that press against the rectum can lead to constipation or a feeling of abdominal bloating.
  5. Pain during intercourse: In some cases, fibroids can cause discomfort or pain during sexual intercourse.
  6. Lower back pain or leg pain: Large fibroids can press on nearby nerves, leading to pain in the lower back or legs.

It’s important to note that the severity of symptoms can vary greatly from one woman to another, and some women with even large fibroids may experience no symptoms at all.

Diagnosis of Uterine Fibroids

If you experience symptoms that suggest the presence of uterine fibroids, your healthcare provider may recommend one or more of the following diagnostic tests:

  1. Pelvic exam: During a pelvic exam, your healthcare provider can feel for any abnormal growths or enlargement of the uterus.
  2. Ultrasound: An ultrasound, either transvaginal or abdominal, can provide detailed images of the uterus and any fibroids present.
  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): An MRI can provide high-resolution images of the uterus and fibroids, helping to determine their size, location, and number.
  4. Hysteroscopy: During this procedure, a thin, lighted tube is inserted through the vagina and cervix to examine the inside of the uterus.
  5. Endometrial biopsy: In some cases, a sample of the uterine lining (endometrium) may be taken and examined for abnormalities.

Treatment Options for Uterine Fibroids

The treatment approach for uterine fibroids depends on various factors, including the size and location of the fibroids, the severity of symptoms, your age and reproductive plans, and your overall health. Treatment options can be broadly categorized into three main categories:

Medications for Uterine Fibroids

In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help manage the symptoms of uterine fibroids or shrink the fibroids themselves. These may include:

  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists: These medications temporarily reduce estrogen levels, causing fibroids to shrink. However, they can only be used for short periods due to potential side effects.
  2. Progestin-releasing intrauterine devices (IUDs): These devices can help control heavy menstrual bleeding associated with fibroids.
  3. Oral contraceptives: Birth control pills can help regulate menstrual cycles and reduce heavy bleeding in some women with fibroids.
  4. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): These medications can help alleviate pain and reduce inflammation associated with fibroids.

Surgical Procedures for Uterine Fibroids

Depending on the severity of your symptoms and your reproductive plans, your healthcare provider may recommend one of the following surgical procedures:

  • Myomectomy: This procedure involves the surgical removal of fibroids while preserving the uterus, making it an option for women who wish to become pregnant in the future.
  • Hysterectomy: In cases where fibroids are causing severe symptoms or complications, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be recommended, particularly for women who do not plan to have children.
  • Endometrial ablation: This minimally invasive procedure destroys the uterine lining, reducing or stopping heavy menstrual bleeding caused by fibroids.
  • Uterine artery embolization (UAE): This procedure blocks the blood supply to the fibroids, causing them to shrink over time.
  • Myolysis: This minimally invasive procedure uses heat or cold to destroy fibroid tissue.

Non-surgical Options for Treating Uterine Fibroids

  1. Medication: Certain medications, such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists or selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs), can help shrink fibroids or manage symptoms like heavy bleeding.
  2. Hormonal contraceptives: Birth control pills, intrauterine devices (IUDs), or other hormonal contraceptives can help regulate menstrual bleeding and may provide relief from fibroid-related symptoms.
  3. Uterine fibroid embolization (UFE): This minimally invasive procedure involves the injection of small particles into the blood vessels that supply the fibroids, cutting off their blood supply and causing them to shrink over time.
  4. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU): This non-invasive technique uses focused ultrasound waves to heat and destroy fibroid tissue without harming surrounding healthy tissue.
  5. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS): This advanced technique combines MRI imaging with focused ultrasound waves to precisely target and destroy fibroid tissue while preserving the uterus.

The choice of non-surgical treatment depends on factors such as the size and location of the fibroids, your age, and your overall health status. In some cases, a combination of surgical and non-surgical approaches may be recommended.

Alternative Therapies for Uterine Fibroids

In addition to conventional treatments, some women may explore alternative or complementary therapies to manage their fibroid symptoms or reduce the risk of developing new fibroids. These may include:

  1. Dietary changes: Eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, while limiting red meat and processed foods, may help reduce the risk of developing fibroids or alleviate symptoms.
  2. Herbal supplements: Certain herbal supplements, such as green tea extract, chasteberry, and black cohosh, have been studied for their potential benefits in managing fibroid symptoms, but more research is needed.
  3. Acupuncture: Some women find relief from fibroid-related pain and discomfort through acupuncture treatments.
  4. Stress management: Techniques like yoga, meditation, and deep breathing exercises may help reduce stress levels, which can potentially alleviate fibroid symptoms.

It’s important to discuss any alternative therapies with your healthcare provider to ensure they are safe and appropriate for your individual situation.

Effects of Uterine Fibroids on Pregnancy

Effects of Uterine Fibroids on Pregnancy
Effects of Uterine Fibroids on Pregnancy

Uterine fibroids can potentially impact pregnancy and fertility in several ways:

  1. Infertility: Submucosal fibroids or fibroids that distort the shape of the uterine cavity can interfere with implantation or the ability of a fertilized egg to attach to the uterine lining, making it more difficult to become pregnant.
  2. Miscarriage: The presence of fibroids, particularly submucosal or large fibroids, has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.
  3. Preterm labor and delivery: Fibroids can increase the risk of preterm labor and delivery, potentially leading to complications for both the mother and the baby.
  4. Placental problems: Fibroids may increase the risk of placental abruption (premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall) or placenta previa (implantation of the placenta over the cervix).
  5. Fetal growth restriction: In some cases, fibroids can interfere with the proper flow of blood and nutrients to the placenta, potentially leading to restricted fetal growth.
  6. Cesarean delivery: Women with fibroids, particularly large or multiple fibroids, may be more likely to require a cesarean delivery due to potential complications during labor and delivery.

It’s important to note that not all women with uterine fibroids will experience pregnancy-related complications. The risk depends on factors such as the size, location, and number of fibroids present. Regular prenatal care and monitoring are essential for managing any potential risks associated with fibroids during pregnancy.

Lifestyle Changes to Reduce Uterine Fibroids Symptoms

While lifestyle changes alone may not eliminate uterine fibroids, adopting healthy habits can help manage symptoms and potentially reduce the risk of developing new fibroids. Here are some lifestyle modifications to consider:

  1. Maintain a healthy weight: Being overweight or obese has been linked to an increased risk of developing fibroids. Achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight through a balanced diet and regular exercise may help alleviate symptoms and reduce the risk.
  2. Eat a fiber-rich diet: A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other fiber-rich foods may help reduce the risk of developing fibroids and alleviate symptoms like heavy bleeding and pelvic pain.
  3. Limit alcohol and caffeine: Excessive alcohol consumption and high caffeine intake have been associated with an increased risk of developing fibroids. Moderating your intake of these substances may be beneficial.
  4. Exercise regularly: Regular physical activity can help manage stress levels, maintain a healthy weight, and potentially reduce the risk of developing fibroids or alleviate symptoms.
  5. Manage stress: Chronic stress has been linked to an increased risk of developing fibroids. Incorporating stress-management techniques like yoga, meditation, or deep breathing exercises into your routine may be helpful.
  6. Avoid excessive exposure to environmental toxins: Some research suggests that exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as those found in pesticides and plastics, may contribute to the development of fibroids. Minimizing exposure to these toxins when possible may be beneficial.

Remember, it’s always best to consult with your healthcare provider before making significant lifestyle changes, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking medications.


Uterine fibroids are common, non-cancerous growths that can cause a range of symptoms and complications for women during their reproductive years. While the exact causes of fibroids are not fully understood, factors such as hormones, genetics, age, and lifestyle choices may play a role in their development.

If you experience symptoms that suggest the presence of uterine fibroids, it’s essential to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment. Your healthcare provider can assess your individual situation and recommend the most appropriate course of action, whether it involves medication, surgical intervention, or lifestyle modifications.

Remember, early detection and treatment can help manage symptoms, reduce the risk of complications, and improve your overall quality of life. By being proactive about your health and working closely with your healthcare provider, you can take control of uterine fibroids and make informed decisions about your treatment options.

If you are experiencing symptoms that may be related to uterine fibroids, don’t hesitate to schedule an appointment with your healthcare provider. Contact us or WhatsApp us at +91 88-6077-6071 to book a free appointment with our IVF specialists. Early diagnosis and treatment can help alleviate discomfort, reduce the risk of complications, and improve your overall well-being. Take control of your health today by seeking professional medical advice and exploring the various treatment options available.

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